Ͼ(Bosnia)

Ͼ-츣ü񳪴 ִ ̴. ũξƼƿ ̿ 𳪸ġ (Dinaric Alps) , ó Ǽ ǰ ̸ 巯鼭 ǾԴ. , ȸ, ȸ Ƿ ޾ư ׵ ٹȭ ȯ濡 ͼ, ̸ ϴ ó ̱⵵ ߴ. 1992 ȭӴ ȸ ׶ Ͼ ؿ ڵ鿡 .

3 Ѷ ΰ ̰̿ ̵ ȸ , ȸ , ī縯 ũξƼ ϰ Ͽ. ȸݱ Ȳȭװ, ̸ . Ų ڵ û Ұߴٴ Ҹ 򰡸 ް ߴ. δ , ƿ , ó ƹ ٽ ڶ ð ʿ ̴.

Ͼ (9K)


ڷ

: Ͼ - 츣ü񳪰ȭ
: 51,200km
α: 430()
: 󿹺 (Sarajevo)
: Ͼ(44%), (31%), ũξƼ(17%), Ÿ(8%),
: - ũξƼƾ( Ͼƾ Ҹ.)
: ̽ȸ(40%), ȸ(31%), ī縯(15%), ű(4%), Ÿ(10%)
ü: Ż
(Chairman of the Presidency): ġ(Ante Jelavic)

ֱ ٷ ȭӸ Ͼ-츣ü񳪴 ߾ӿ ũ ιŰƳ ̱ ׳׽ ũ. Ƶ帮 ٷ ʿ ġϸ , , δ ũξƼƿ δ ƿ ׳ױ׷ο ִ. ũξƼƸ ٽ հ Ͽ Ƶ帮ؿ ϸ 20km غ Ǿ.

, Ͼƴ ġ ȯ ȸ-ũξƼƿ(51%), Ʊ, ī ȭ(Republika Srpska ) ( 49%) DZյϰ ҵǾ. , ĭ, ߺ 3 ѷ ٸ °谡 ũ ߺο ο ġ̴. ٰ ִ. 츣ü񳪿 ִ ۸ġ (Maglic)μ Ƶ帮 غ 2385m̷ ھִ. Ͼ-츣ü ü Ѵ. Ĵ ߿ ̴ܿ. 󿹺 1 1̰ 7 ձ 21̴. ö(4, 5) dzϰ äο Ĺ ִ° ñ̴.

ֹε ϸ(Illyrians)̾, ̾ 󿹺(Sarajevo)ó õ αٿ θε ؿԴ. θ п 395, Ͼ-츣ü񳪿 (Drina) θ ƾ ϴ Ǿ. 7 960 Ǿ. 1383 Ű ħ ־ Ͼƴ 󿹺 ϴ Ű ְ Ǿ.

Ű ϴ 400 Ͼ-츣ü񳪴 ö ȭǾ. θ ī縯 ϴ ũξƼΰ ȸ ϴ ׵ ϰ ̽ Ͽ. Ͼƴ ̽ Ǿ. 16 17, Űε Ͼ-츣ü񳪸 ȭϿ. 19 ߹ ε  Űο ̾, Ұ£ þƿ Ű ϰ . þ ޴ Ʈ- սθ׿ Ͼ-츣ü񳪸 Ѵ.

ӵǴ ܼ а, 1908 Ʈư Ͼ-츣ü񳪸 պ . 1914 6 28 󿹺 Ͼ սθ 丣𳭵 (Franz Ferdinand) ϻ Ʈƴ ƿ ߴ. þư Ƹ ƮƸ Ϸ پ.

1 Ͼ-츣ü񳪴 մĿ պǰ, 1941 ũξƼ ĽýƮ ٽ պȴ. 2 ũξƼ δ ε 40 Ÿ 'û' лѴ. þƱ Ƽ ָ ޴ α 1944 ϱ Ƴ. 1948 ҷ Ż ƿ Ұ Ƽ Ѵ. Ƽ δ ҷ ƴϾ, 40 Ƽ İڵ ϰ , Ͼ-츣ü, ũξƼ, κϾ, ׳ױ׷ ̷ Ѵ.

1990 11 ȭ ù° ſ ڽŵ ȸ 뺯ϴ ƿ ũξƼ Ǵ е ٹ Ͼ-츣ü񳪸 ϴ ȸ翡 йѴ. ڿ Ͽ ũξƼƴ ȸ ϰ, 1991 10 15 ߿ Ȱǿ ڰ źθ ִ ʸ Ʒκ Ѵ. ȸǿ ȸ ŻϿ ׵ ȸ Ѵ. Ͼ-츣ü񳪰 εǰ ȭ ıȴ.

Ͼ-츣ü ȸ ε Ǹ Ͽ ұϰ ׶ ڵ Ͼ ε лκ ȣϵ ؿڵ Ͽ. 1992 4 󿹺 Holiday Innȣڿ ݼ ȭ θ¢ ùε鿡 ν ۵Ǿ. ƴ 5 ޾ ϱ Ͽ. 󿹺 4 5 ϰ ۵Ǿ.

ε Ͼ ٸ ڽŵ 300km θ Ϻο Ͼ ȸ û ȯ ϰ ߹Ͽ. ׷ Ż Ͽ ٽ ƿ ϰ ¿. źϴ ڵ лϿ. δ ̷ ߴ.

1992 6 Ÿ(Mostar) 츣ý- (Herceg-Bosna) ũξƼ ü Ǿ, 11 ɰ ũξƼ Ͼƿ ҿ ĵ ũξƼΰ ȸ ݷ ۵Ǿ. Ÿ ȸ 󿹺 ŭ ָ ߴ.

1992 8 ̻ȸ ε Ȱ µ ϴ Ͽ, 11 6000 ȣǰ ȣϱ Ͼ-츣ü񳪿 ĺ Ǿ. ׵ 1993 1 Ͼ-츣ü μ ˹ҿ 尩κ ȭ տ ó .

1993 ߹ û ȸ Ǽϴ ϱ ߴ. ϳ (Srebrenica) 1995 600 ڵ þ߿ ״ ʴ Ǹ ̴. ߻ ڰ 󿹺 պ 68 ù װ 200 λ μ µ ׸ΰ ƿ Ͽ Ѵ.

1995 8, Ŭ ̱ ε ְ, ȸ ũξƼε ο ϴ DZ ȭ Ѵ. ڵ鰣 ȸǴ 1995 11 ̱ ̿ Ȱ, ϰ и ü; Ͼ-츣ü ȸ-ũξƼ (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine ) Ͼ-츣ü ưȭ(Republika Srpska) ´ٴ Ǿ Ͽ.(12 ĸ صȴ) ϰ Ͼ, , ũξƼƱ ǵ öϿ ȭ ׵ ̸ Ͽ.

3 4õ Ͼ-츣ü񳪿 ȭ ֵϰ , ΰε ٽ ϰ Ǽϱ ִ. ȭ Ͽ, ̿ ڼҺ ο Ű ִ.

ص ü Ͼ-츣ü񳪸 󿡼 ü Ͽ. ǥ(the Chairman of the Presidency) ˷ ִ ȸ ˸ Ʈġ (Alija Izetbegovic ) ũξƼ ġ(Ante Jelavic) ġ(Zivko Radisic) Բ ġϰ ִ. ݵδ ȸ(the Council of Ministers) ġ(Boro Bosic) ϸ Ƕġ(Haris Silajdzic) , ̵ Բ ӸѴ. 3 Ͽ Ͼ-츣ü , ̸ ָġ(Vladimir Soljic ) ְ ī ȭ(the Republika Srpska ) , ݶ ö(Nikola Poplasen ) ִµ, ״ ڷ ˷ ־ ȭ ߰ڵ ״. 󸶳 ġ Ȳ Ѱ ϴ , 1997 ġſ 80 Ͽ.

Ͼ ε и䱸 öȸϿ ȸ ڵ鰣 ȭ Ѵ. ̱׿ 25 ڸ ϰ 1999 ư ϴ ɶ׸ (Keraterm) μҿ ȸ ũξƼε ó Ƿ (Dragan Kulundzija) üϿ. ε ӿ ְ ȭ а ӹ δ

ѻ: US$19 (1995 )
δ ѻ: US$600 (1995 )
ֿ: , ڵ, , , , ũ , ǰ, ( κ ϰ ıǾų ݾ)

ȭ

Ͼε ȸ, , ī縯, ű, ± ٸ źϴ ϰ Դ. ׵ ̷ پ缺 ݿ, ׷. ̷ Ȥ û ϰ . Ŀ ο ϰ ְ, ߿ Ÿ ȸ, ±ȸ پ ٸ ¡ Բ .

Ȳȭ ̴. տ ұϰ, ȭ ΰ ϰ Ͼ-츣ü ȸ̴. Ͼ-츣ü ȸ ȸ ӵ ǵǰ ִ. ̷ κ ̹Ƿ ٴ ǿ . , ũξƼ, Ͼ ȸ δ ̹Ƿ ׵ .

ұϰ Ͼ-츣ü Ѵ. Ͼƻ Ͼƾ θ ũξƼε ũξƼƾ Ҹ, ī ȭ ƾ Ҹ. Ͼ-츣ü񳪿 ƾ ڸ ƻ Űڸ . Űڴ 30 ̻ ĺ ϸ, ĺ ȴ. Ͼƴ ̸ (Bosna ) ԰, 츣ü񳪴 15 Ű ϴ븦 ߴ 츣üũ()κ ߴ.

ȸ Ź , ۸ ش. Ϲ Ͼƻ 湮鿡 ģϴ. ȭ ġ ٲ ּ ̴. Ͽ ̾߱ Ϲ ׵ Ǵٰ ȮѴ.

޾Ҵٴ ѷ Ŵ, , ߿ Ʃ 꽺Ű γġ(bosanski lonac), Ű ũ(baklava), ׻ ġ ִ ䷹ũ(burek) Ǵ(pida) Ŀ Ÿִ. äڵ ׻ ġ ñġ ø(sirnica) (zeljanica) ִ. (Tufahije) ȣ ũ ũ̴.

Ͼƿ ˷ ۰ Ҽ 3ۿ ù° ٸ(Bridge over the Drina) ̺ ȵ帮ġ(Ivo Andric)̴. Ƹ ̰ Ͼƿ α ִ 󱸷 ϴٴ ̴. ̷ ǵ ó ´ٸ , ׵ 󱸸 Ѵٴ ̴.

ȭ (Republic Day) 11 25, ī ȭ 1 9Ͽ Ѵ. Ư ϰ Բ, 3 1 , 5 1 뵿 Ѵ. 󿹺 ظ 󿹺 ʸ 8 ʰ , 2 ܿ, 3 ذ ǰ .

: ֱٿ ̱ΰ κ EU Ա Ǹ ϸ ȴ.
ǰ : ű , , ߺ, ƼǪ, , , ڵ
ð
: ׸ġ ǥؽ 1ð .
: 220Ʈ, 50
: ͹

ȯ

ȭ: ũ δ.
Ϲݰ:
Ļ: US$ 3-6
߱ Ļ: US$6-15
ְ Ļ: US$15 ̻
: US$25-40
߱ȣ: US$40-70
ȣ: US$70 ̻

Ͼ-츣ü ݿ ü̴. ֱ Ե ũ 1:1 ȯ å, Ͼ 𳪸 ũȭ θ ȴ. ũξƼ 𳪸 ش ġ ̸, ȣ ϰ ̱ ޷ ʴ´.

޵ΰ(Medugorje) ϰ Ͼ-츣ü񳪿 ſī θ ʴ´. ǥ ã ְ ؾ Ѵ. ڵޱ ʴ´. ȣ Ƿ θ, Ư Ͽ ׷. ι ϸ ִ. ʴ. ýø Ż Ϲ ִ ̴.

ñ

Ͼ-츣ü ϵ DZ⸦ ٸ ϴ ܿ
Ư . Ĵ رĿ ߺİ ϸ, ѿ
Ѱܿ ϰ ü ϳ Ĵ ȭϴ. ġ ʿ .

ֿ

󿹺(Sarajevo)

󿹺 ȸ, , ׸ Ű dzο ִ ߿ ÿ. 1914 ý 丣𳭵 κ ״ ִ. 70 󿹺 1984 ø ġؼ ̸ ִ.

⵿ 󿹺 ȸ, , ũξƼ, Ű, ȭ ߾. ̷ ֱ ƿ װ 5 ġ鼭 μ Ҵ.

̷ 3 ߸ ұϰ 󿹺 ٽ ѹ ã Ǿ. ٽ ǰ, ī ȣ ٽ õõ ã ϰ ִ. ʱ Ǹ Ҵ ͸ ٴϴ ̾ پ ִ. ð Բ 󿹺 ٽ ѹ Ȱ 뵵÷ Żٲϰ ִ.

ü(Jajce)

ü 󿹺 ũξƼ ڱ׷ ӵ ִ Ÿ ߼ ѷ ̴. 15 Ű , ü Ͼ ϴ յ ϴ ̸, 1943 ѵ ع . 1943 ع ĽýƮ ȸ 2 ȸǿ ǥڵ ο ƿ Ƽ II ġϴ չ ڷ ϴ Ģ ϴ Ѵ.

1992 10 иڵ ū ׷̾ ȸ 3 5õ Ȥϰ ߹Ѵ. иǾ ִ.

Ÿ(Mostar)

󿹺 κκũ ִ ߰ ũ Ÿ 츣ü ߿ ̴. ߿ 15 Űε鿡 Ǽ , ũ(Kujundziluk) Ѷ ȸȭ ó ؾ ޾ õ Ͽ.

1993 5 ִ ũξƼ 10 ׷Ʈ(Neretva) ȸ Ѵ. ũξƼε Ͽ õ ȸ ߹ϰ лѴ. 16,17 ȸ ıѴ. 1993 11 Ÿ Ǫ ׷Ʈٰ ִ 20m ġ Ű ٸ ũξƼ ݿ ıȴ.

α 2 1̸, ô ȸ ũξƼ ִ. ŷ ߼ ǹ, , Ű ǰȸ ƿ ó ִ. Ÿ Ȳ ÿ ư ŭ ̴..

˷

޵ΰ(Medugorje)

1981 6 24 Ÿ ٷ ġƮũ(Citluk) νŰ(Ljubuski) ʴ ûҳ6 Ұ Ͽ. ׸ ޵ΰ Ͼ. 10 ޵ΰ , , ǰ , ڵ뿩, , , ¦̴ ޸ ý, ü . '' ġ ؾ޾ ó ߵǾ. Ͼ ִ.

ڸ ּҷ ߾ ǽü ջ ʾҰ ο ƿ ִ. ̻ α׷, ȸ, , ؼ ߸޽(St James) ȸ . ߸޽ 9 ȸ ȿ ִٸ, ȸ ɾ ð Ÿ (Podbrdo) (the Hill of Apparitions) , ݿ Ͼ.

Ʈũ(Travnik)

󿹺 ϼ 90km ִ ִ Ʈũ ϾƸ 1699 1851 ߴ Ű . ô ܱ Ͽ ֱٿ Ͼƿ ˷ ۰ ̺ ȵ帮ġ(Ivo Andric) ִ.

ȸ ũξƼε ֺ ӵ κ ð μ ʰ Ҵ. ȸ ߿ ִ Ƹٿ ߼ô , õ, 󿹺 ٳ ī(Banja Luka) Ϸ ߿ ġ ִ. ϸ޵ μ ϰ ִٰ ũ(ul Hendek) ִ ä ȸ ġ ٶ.

ٳ ī(Banja Luka)

ϼ Ͼ 긣ٽ ִ ̰ ó ī ȭ ˷ ִ. ʴ. 1993 16 ̽ ĽŰ ʰڴٰ Ȯߴ. ϰ 긣ٽ 16 ġ ū ̴. ġ ȴٰ Ѵ. ߽ 1998 1 Ͼ-ΰ ϰ ִ.

Ͼ-츣ü dz , ó, ߿ܿ ְ Ѵ. , ŷ, ¸Ÿ, ø Ҵ , ʴ Ű޾ ǰ õ 𿡼 ִ. ̷ ȹ, Ǻ񸰳 ̷ ǥ ̷µ ū δ ǰ ִ. ӿ ڿ κ Ʈ ߻ ġ ְ ִ.

Ͼ

󿹺, Ÿ, ٳ ī ٽ װ 󿹺׿ Ǿ ְ, ׳ װ 幮幮 ִ. ū װ ΰװ ׵ ǥ ʴ . ȭ 15 󿹺 ΰȴ.

öδ ֱ ǰ ־ 񽺴 ʰ ִ. ݰ ҽ Ͼ-츣ü ī ȭ ̿ ΰ Ǿٴ ̰, ٱ ǰ ִ. 󿹺 ߺ ø ϴ .

Ϻεΰ ıǾ ° ڰ ڵ ɼ ڵ Ͼ-츣ü غ ̴. ٵ ֹε ڵ̴. ϰ, ū ܿ ڵ Ұ . ׷ ڵ ϸ ٸ ٴϰ ϴ ̴ּ. õ鰣 ϰ, ýô ÿ ϰ Ÿ ٴϴ ͵ ̴. ǰ ִ.